NASA SPoRT has developed a real-time configuration of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) that runs over much of the central and eastern United States at 3-km grid spacing. The LIS produces several products including a suite of soil moisture products that can be used as a tool for assessing drought and flooding potential. WFO Raleigh along with WFOs Houston and Huntsville are participating in an assessment of these products during August and September. SPoRT created a couple of training modules (LIS Primer module and LIS Applications Module) to prepare NWS forecasters for this new dataset.
There are four LIS soil moisture products that are made available to WFO Raleigh forecasters in AWIPS-2 and which are available online at http://weather.msfc.nasa.gov/sport/case_studies/lis_SEUS.html for the Southeast and http://weather.msfc.nasa.gov/sport/case_studies/lis_NC.html for North Carolina. The products include:
- Volumetric Soil Moisture (0 to 10cm) [SOIM0-10]
- Below Ground Relative Soil Moisture (0 to 10cm) [RSOIM]
- Below Ground Relative Soil Moisture (0 to 200cm) [INT-RSOIM]
- Below Ground One Week Change in Column Relative Soil Moisture (0 to 200cm) [RSOIMDIFF]
Each week, WFO Raleigh Hydrologist Michael Moneypenny serves as a member of the North Carolina Drought Management Advisory Council (NCDMAC) which provides recommendations to the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM). The USDM consists of a consortium of academic and government partners, including the University of Nebraska-Lincoln National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) and various other federal and state agencies.
WFO Raleigh started receiving the LIS soil moisture products in July and evaluating the products in August. The products were first used during the weekly NCDMAC collaboration call on Tuesday August 5th. The LIS data was used to expand the D0 (abnormally dry) category at a sub-county level into portions of Robeson and Scotland Counties. In particular, the 0-200 cm Relative Soil Moisture Weekly Change product was used to show changes in the deep layer soil moisture. In figure 1 below, the upper image was referenced by the NCDMAC during the August 5th collaboration call to recommend expansion of D0 at the sub-county scale in the area circled.
In addition, a more formal demonstration of the full suite of LIS soil moisture products was conducted during the weekly NCDMAC collaboration call on Tuesday August 12th. In figure 1 below, the lower image was used to inspect the short time scale improvement of soil moisture conditions in the areas under D0 drought designation. While the graphic shows marked improvement from significant rainfall, the D0 areas were not modified as lingering 30 and 60 day rainfall deficits in these areas (in addition to crop reports), overshadowed the short term improvement.
The NCDMAC will be examining how best to utilize these products for drought assessment. Preliminary ideas include: 1) how the products can be correlated to the observed well level observations available via the USGS and state networks, and 2) how the SPoRT products can be used to enhance or complement the Standardized Precipitation Index product produced by the NC State Climate office.